The key for understanding python positional and keyword arguments

In one of the previous article, we have summarized the different ways of passing arguments to Python script. In this article, we will be reviewing through the various approaches for defining and passing arguments into a function in python.

First, let’s start from the basis.

Parameter vs argument

By definition, parameters are the identifiers you specified when you define your function, while arguments are the actual values you supplied to the function when you make the function call. Sometimes you may see people mix up the word parameter and argument, but ultimately they are all referring to the same thing.

Basically Python function supports two types of parameters: positional and keyword arguments. Positional argument is designed to accept argument by following its position during the definition time, while for keyword arguments, you will need to specify the identifier (keyword) followed by the values.

You are allowed to use a combination of positional and keyword arguments when you define your function parameters. Below are the 4 types of variations:

Positional or keyword parameter

By default when you define a Python function, you can either pass in the arguments as positional or keyword. For instance, the below function requires two parameters – file_name and separator:

def read_file(file_name, separator):    
    print(f"file_name={file_name}, separator={separator}")
    file_text  = "Assuming this is the first paragraph from the file."
    return file_text.split(separator)

You can make the function call by supplying the arguments by parameter position or providing the parameter keywords:

read_file("text.txt", " ")
read_file(file_name="text.txt", separator=" ")
read_file("text.txt", separator=" ")
read_file(separator=" ", file_name="text.txt")

All above 4 calls would give you the same results as per below:

file_name=text.txt, separator= 
['Assuming', 'this', 'is', 'the', 'first', 'paragraph', 'from', 'the', 'file.']

Python accepts these arguments regardless of the arguments are provided in positional form or keyword form. When all arguments are by keywords, you can provide them in any order. But take note that positional arguments must be placed before the keyword arguments. For instance, the below throws syntax error,

read_file(file_name="text.txt", " ")

which shows “positional argument follows keyword argument”.

python positional argument and keyword argument

keyword only parameter

For clarity, you may want to implement functions that only accept keyword arguments, and your callers are restricted to only use keyword arguments to invoke the function. To achieve that, you can tweak a bit on your function definition with an additional “*” to indicate all parameters after it must be passed as keywords arguments. E.g.:

def write_file(file_name, *, separator, end, flush):
    print(f"file={file_name}, sep={separator}, end={end}, flush flag={flush}")

For the above function, the separator, end, flush parameters will only accept keyword arguments. You can call it as per below:

write_file("test.txt", separator=" ", end="\r\n", flush=True)

And you shall see output as per below:

file=test.txt, sep= , end=
, flush flag=True

But if you try to pass in all as positional arguments:

write_file("test.txt", " ", "\n", False)

You would see the below error message, which shows the last 3 positional arguments were not accepted.

python positional argument and keyword argument

To further restrict all parameters to be keyword only, you just need to shift the “*” to the beginning of all parameters:

def write_file(*, file_name, separator, end, flush):
    print(f"file={file_name}, sep={separator}, end={end}, flush flag={flush}")

This would make all parameters to only accept keyword arguments. And you can unpack an existing dictionary and pass it arguments into the function:

options = dict(file_name="test.txt", separator=",", end="\n", flush=True)

Positional only arguments

Many Python built-in functions only accept positional arguments, for instance the pow, divmod and abs etc. Prior to Python version 3.8, there is no easy way to define your own function with positional-only parameters. But from version 3.8 onward, you can restrict your function to only accept positional arguments by specifying the “/” (PEP 570) in the function definition. All the parameters come before “/” will be positional-only arguments. For example:

def read(file_name, separator, /):
    print(f"file_name={file_name}, separator={separator}")

For these parameters, if you try to pass in the keyword argument as per below:

read("test.txt", separator=",")

You would see error message indicating the particular parameter is positional-only argument.

    read("test.txt", separator=",")
TypeError: read() got some positional-only arguments passed as keyword arguments: 'separator'

Arbitrary number of arguments

There are cases that you have a number of positional or keyword arguments and you do not want to have a long list of parameters in the function definition. For such case, you can use *args and **kwargs to define arbitrary number of arguments to be accepted by the function. For instance:

def log(*args,**kwargs):
    print(f"args={args}, kwargs={kwargs}")

The above function accepts any number of positional arguments and keyword arguments. All the positional arguments will be packed into a tuple, and keyword arguments are packed into a dictionary.

log("start", "debugging", program_name="python", version=3.7)

When you make a function call as per above, you can see the below output:

args=('start', 'debugging'), kwargs={'program_name': 'python', 'version': 3.7}

This is especially useful when you are just trying to capture a snapshot of all the input arguments (such as logging) or implement a wrapper function for decorator where you do not need to know the exact arguments being passed in. The arbitrary arguments give the callers more flexibility on what they want to pass into your function.

The disadvantage are also obvious, it’s unclear to the new reader what are the parameters to be provided in order to get the correct result from the function call; and you shall not expect all the arguments to be present during the call, so you will have to write some logic to handle the various scenarios when the particular parameters are missing or present.

The best practice for function arguments

When you only have 1 or 2 parameters for the function, you won’t typically see any issue with the code readability/clarity. Problems usually emerge when you have more parameters and some are mandatory and some are optional. Consider the below send_email example:

def send_email(subject, to, cc, 
               bcc, message, attachment, 
               onbehalf, important, read_receipt_requested):
    print(f"{subject}, {to}, {cc}, \
          {bcc} {onbehalf}, {message}, \
          {attachment}, {important}, {read_receipt_requested}")

When you try to include as many parameters as possible to make the function generic for everybody, you’ll have to maintain a very long list of the parameters in the function definition. Calling this function by passing the positional arguments can be very confusing, as you will have to follow exactly the same sequence to provide the arguments as per in the function definition without omitting any single optional argument. E.g.:

send_email("hello", "", "",
           None, None, 
           "hello", None, False, True)

Without referring back to the function definition, it would be very hard to know which argument represents for which parameter. The best way to make handle such scenario is to always use keyword arguments and set the optional arguments with a default value. For example, the below improved version:

def send_email(subject, to, message, 
               cc=None, bcc=None, attachment=None, 
               onbehalf=None, important=False, read_receipt_requested=False):
    print(f"{subject}, {to}, {cc}, \
          {bcc} {onbehalf}, {message}, \
          {attachment}, {important}, {read_receipt_requested}")

#specify all parameters with keyword arguments

With keyword arguments, it improves readability of your code and also allows you to specify default values for the optional arguments. Further more, it gives you the flexibility to extend your parameter list in the future without refactoring your existing code, so that it provides the backwards compatibility at the very beginning.


In this article, we have reviewed through the different approaches for defining and passing arguments to Python function as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Based on your own scenario, you may need to evaluate whether to use positional-only, keyword-only, mix of positional and keyword, or even arbitrary arguments. For code clarity, the general recommendation is to use keyword argument as much as possible, so that all the arguments are understandable at the first glance, and reduces the chances of error.

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Great post

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